Papers &Citations per head of population
The Office of Science and Technology from the Science Citation Index (SCI) compiled this data. The Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) is part of Thomson Scientific, itself part of Thomson Corporation. The SCI accesses biographical information, author abstracts and cited references in 5,700 of the world's leading scholarly and technical journals covering more than 150 disciplines in over 170 countries. Data are continuously updated: the latest three years for citations especially are less than half the likely final totals and in order to allow for this the latest six year interval has been selected.
3.14 Real government R&D expenditure per worker
Data taken from the twice yearly OECD Main Science and Technology Indicators
3.15 Business spend on R&D
Data are taken from the OECD Annual Business Enterprise R&D (ANBERD) database, which collates the results of national R&D surveys.
4.1 Business Spend on Innovation including R&D
Data on innovation are taken from the second Community Innovation Survey (CIS) with reference years 1994-96. This provides data on the innovation activities of enterprises employing more than ten people across most EU and some EEA countries. The results are currently for Belgium, Germany, Spain, France, Ireland, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Austria, Finland, Sweden, UK and Norway. The survey covers all manufacturing industries, utilities, transport and distribution services, telecommunications, and financial, computing and engineering services.
International comparisons using the CIS should be treated with caution. While the survey is designed to be consistent across countries, it is not clear that questions have always been interpreted consistently across Member States. Moreover some countries have low response rates that will undermine the reliability of the sample.
4.2 UK's patenting performance
Data for patents granted in the US come from the US Patent and Trade Mark Office. Data for EU patent applications are provided by the European Patent Office.
4.3 Proportion of firms that innovate
The second CIS classified an enterprise as an innovator if it had introduced new or improved products or processes between 1994 and 1996.
4.4 Share of sales from new or improved products
The CIS recorded, for manufacturing enterprises only, the percentage of total turnover in 1996 due to new and improved products introduced during the previous three years.
4.5 University licensing, spinouts and start-ups
The data on spinouts are taken from Higher Education Funding Council for Englandís report Industry Academic links in the UK, prepared for the Office of Science and Technology.
4.6 Sources of information for innovation
Data are taken from the second CIS. The survey asked enterprises to grade the importance of a number of sources of information for new technological innovation projects or for the completion of existing projects.
4.7 Joint publication by universities and industry
The data is taken from SPRU, UK Corporate Research and Collaboration.
4.8 Internationalisation of R&D
Data are taken from OECD's Activity of Foreign Affiliates Database. The geographical origin of a foreign affiliate is the country of the parent company if it holds over 50 per cent of the affiliate's voting shares.
4.9 Technological alliances between firms
The source of the data is the Maastricht Economic research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT) based at the University of Maastricht. Alliances can take a variety of forms, ranging from simple partnerships (cross licensing) to the establishment of common research subsidiaries.
Last updated on 20 November 2003