4.1 Business Spend on
Innovation including R&D
Data on innovation are taken
from the second Community Innovation Survey (CIS) with reference years 1994-96.
This provides data on the innovation activities of enterprises employing
more than ten people across most EU and some EEA countries.
The results are currently for Belgium, Germany, Spain, France, Ireland,
Luxembourg, Netherlands, Austria, Finland, Sweden, UK and Norway.
The survey covers all manufacturing industries, utilities, transport and
distribution services, telecommunications, and financial, computing and
comparisons using the CIS should be treated with caution.
While the survey is designed to be consistent across countries, it is not
clear that questions have always been interpreted consistently across Member
States. Moreover some countries
have low response rates that will undermine the reliability of the sample.
4.2 UK's patenting performance
Data for patents granted in
the US come from the US Patent and Trade Mark Office.
Data for EU patent applications are provided by the European Patent
4.3 Proportion of firms that innovate
second CIS classified an enterprise as an innovator if it had introduced new or
improved products or processes between 1994 and 1996.
4.4 Share of sales from new or improved products
CIS recorded, for manufacturing enterprises only, the percentage of total
turnover in 1996 due to new and improved products introduced during the previous
4.5 University licensing, spinouts and start-ups
The data on spinouts are taken
from Higher Education Funding Council for Englandís report Industry Academic
links in the UK, prepared for the Office of Science and Technology.
4.6 Sources of information for innovation
are taken from the second CIS. The
survey asked enterprises to grade the importance of a number of sources of
information for new technological innovation projects or for the completion of
4.7 Joint publication by universities and industry
data is taken from SPRU, UK Corporate Research and Collaboration.
4.8 Internationalisation of R&D
are taken from OECD's Activity of Foreign Affiliates Database.
The geographical origin of a foreign affiliate is the country of the
parent company if it holds over 50 per cent of the affiliate's voting shares.
4.9 Technological alliances between firms
source of the data is the Maastricht Economic research Institute on Innovation
and Technology (MERIT) based at the University of Maastricht. Alliances can take
a variety of forms, ranging from simple partnerships (cross licensing) to the
establishment of common research subsidiaries.
4.10 Entry and exit rates
rates are taken from the Global Enterprise Monitor (GEM), 2000. GEM
was created in 1997 as a joint research project initiative by Babson College and
London Business School with support from the Kauffman Center for Entrepreneurial
Leadership and the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation.
This is a cross-national comparison of the role and impact of
entrepreneurship in national economic growth.
Ten countries participated in
the 1999 exercise: the G7 plus Denmark, Finland and Israel.
GEM 2000 added 11 countries from across Europe, Asia and South America.
Data were assembled from three principal sources: population surveys; in
depth interviews of national experts; and standardised national data.
on registration times and start up costs are taken from the European Commission
document Benchmarking Enterprise Policy - First results from the Scoreboard.
These data were themselves taken from the Logotech study commissioned by
the European Commission, International Comparison of the Formal Requirements and
Administrative Procedures Required for the Formation of SME's of any legal
status in EU and Other major countries, Logotech, 1997.
4.11 Fast growing firms
Data on the percentage of
businesses which have doubled their sales growth in the past five years are
taken from the Merrill Lynch study Benchmarking the New Economy: Europe in the
Global Context, August 2000.
4.12 Attitudes to risk taking
on entrepreneurial attitudes are taken from the GEM 1999 full report.
Last updated on 07 August 2002